Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, and Construction Management
This research guide was designed to introduce you to the field of civil engineering and construction management. You'll find books, article databases, and other resources you need to start your research.
A standard is an approved set of criteria defining the performance or design of a product or defining the process of constructing a product.
A standard is usually represent by the acronym of the issuing organization followed by a number and the date of issuance. Examples:
A specification is a set of conditions and/or requirements used primarily for procurement and manufacturing purposes. Standards may be referenced or included in specifications.
Codes are organized collections of mandatory standards that have been made into law by a governmental authority.
Who produces standards?
Scientific and professional organizations (such as ASME, IEEE, etc), trade organizations, and governments create standards, both nationally as well as internationally. In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates many standards producing organizations.
How do I identify which standards I need?
There are many search tools on the internet to assist you in locating standards in your area of study; see the links below to search for standards.
Are standards protected by copyright? Yes, under both US and International laws, a standard has copyright protection. Each standard is considered to be a separate work of authorship, just as a book would be; the copyright owner is the issuing organization.
What standards can I access through Cline Library?
This online library provides access to industry-leading standards and technical engineering information. Covers a broad range of engineering disciplines, including aerospace, biomedical, chemical, civil, environmental, geological, health and safety, industrial, materials science, mechanical, nuclear, petroleum, soil science, and solar engineering.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Incorporated by Reference (IBR) Portal
This portal is a one-stop mechanism for access to standards that have been incorporated by reference in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). These standards incorporated by the U.S. government in rulemakings are offered at no cost in “read only” format and are presented for online reading. There are no print or download options.
Standards available on the ANSI IBR Portal include those developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and other standards developing organizations (SDOs) that have signed a terms and conditions agreement with ANSI. To access the standards in PDF format, go to the link below. All users will be required to install the FileOpen plug-in and accept an online end user license agreement prior to accessing any standards.
In addition to the standards available directly through the portal, several SDOs are offering free access via their own website.
A database of industry standards -- while this company charges for access to the standards themselves, you can search their database by title keywords to find out what standards exist. If you find a standard you want to access, check to see which standards agency issued that particular standard -- you might be able to get the standard for free on the agency's website.
OSHA's mission is to ensure that employees work in a safe and healthful environment by setting and enforcing standards, and by providing training, outreach, education, and assistance. Employers must comply with all applicable OSHA standards. They must also comply with hte General Duty Clause of the OSH Act, which requires employers to keep their workplace free of serious recognized hazards.
If you need help with accessing standards contact your librarian Bridget.Wipf@nau.edu
This video by the Purdue Northwest Library will walk you through the basics of how to navigate ASTM Standards.
A patent is a legal document giving the patent owner certain exclusive rights to his/her invention for a limited time. Patents are an excellent source of information on new technology, trends in technological development, and specific products or innovations.
Google Patents covers the entire collection of granted patents and published patent applications from the USPTO, EPO, and WIPO. US patent documents date back to 1790, EPO and WIPO to 1978. Google features the full text of pre-1976 USPTO patents, but be aware that this text was generated with an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) program and may contain errors.