The information on this page was primarily obtained from ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, especially their StandardsLearn.org website; the site is highly recommended for those wanting to learn more about standards.
What are standards, specifications, and codes?
A standard is an approved set of criteria defining the performance or design of a product or defining the process of constructing a product.
A standard is usually represent by the acronym of the issuing organization followed by a number and the date of issuance. Examples:
A specification is a set of conditions and/or requirements used primarily for procurement and manufacturing purposes. Standards may be referenced or included in specifications.
Codes are organized collections of mandatory standards that have been made into law by a governmental authority.
Who produces standards?
Scientific and professional organizations (such as ASME, IEEE, etc), trade organizations, and governments create standards, both nationally as well as internationally. In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates many standards producing organizations.
How do I identify which standards I need?
There are many search tools on the internet to assist you in locating standards in your area of study; see the links below to search for standards.
Are standards protected by copyright? Yes, under both US and International laws, a standard has copyright protection. Each standard is considered to be a separate work of authorship, just as a book would be; the copyright owner is the issuing organization.
What standards can I access through Cline Library?
This online library provides access to industry-leading standards and technical engineering information. Covers a broad range of engineering disciplines, including aerospace, biomedical, chemical, civil, environmental, geological, health and safety, industrial, materials science, mechanical, nuclear, petroleum, soil science, and solar engineering.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Incorporated by Reference (IBR) Portal
This portal is a one-stop mechanism for access to standards that have been incorporated by reference in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). These standards incorporated by the U.S. government in rulemakings are offered at no cost in “read only” format and are presented for online reading. There are no print or download options.
Standards available on the ANSI IBR Portal include those developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and other standards developing organizations (SDOs) that have signed a terms and conditions agreement with ANSI. To access the standards in PDF format, go to the link below. All users will be required to install the FileOpen plug-in and accept an online end user license agreement prior to accessing any standards.
In addition to the standards available directly through the portal, several SDOs are offering free access via their own website.
A database of industry standards -- while this company charges for access to the standards themselves, you can search their database by title keywords to find out what standards exist. If you find a standard you want to access, check to see which standards agency issued that particular standard -- you might be able to get the standard for free on the agency's website.
OSHA's mission is to ensure that employees work in a safe and healthful environment by setting and enforcing standards, and by providing training, outreach, education, and assistance. Employers must comply with all applicable OSHA standards. They must also comply with hte General Duty Clause of the OSH Act, which requires employers to keep their workplace free of serious recognized hazards.
If you need help with accessing standards contact your librarian Bridget.Wipf@nau.edu
This video by the Purdue Northwest Library will walk you through the basics of how to navigate ASTM Standards.
Critical data on inorganic and organic compounds and pure substances. Features physical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and other key properties. Originally published from 1926-1930 for the National Research Council, now available in full-text searchable electronic format.
Originally published by Smithsonian Institution Press in 1954, this classic reference source comprises 901 tables of general interest to scientists and engineers, and of particular interest to those involved with physics in its larger sense.
Links to preview-versions of standards established by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers -- "a global society advancing human well-being through sustainable technology for the built environment."
Developed by the Department of Energy, EnergyPlus is a whole-building energy simulation program that engineers, architects, and researchers use to model both energy consumption—for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and plug and process loads—and water use in buildings.
The Campus Green Builder (CGB) online portal to green building information for academic institutions provides a one-stop online resource on campus green building that is free and accessible to all higher education institutions.
The Campus Environmental Resource Center--CampusERC--is intended to be a portal of resources to support campus environmental performance improvement. Developed collaboratively by NACUBO, C2E2, CSHEMA, APPA and the EPA.
Journal covering aspects of environmentally sound building design & construction including recycled building products, energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, indoor air quality, & systems of waste disposal & re-use.