A citation is a shorthand way of referring to an information source. Citations are also called references. Research articles and conference papers (as well as other sources such as dissertations and many books) have - at the end - a list of citations that the author referred to. Citations consist of all the information required so anyone could track down the full text of that particular source. There are many different "styles" for writing citations. These styles dictate the order and formatting elements such as the title, publication year, volume, issue, authors, etc.
Articles, conference papers, and books found online (in an electronic format) are not considered websites and should not be cited as if they are websites.
IEEE Citation Style
Engineering students at NAU are usually asked to cite their sources using IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style. The IEEE is a professional organization supporting many branches of engineering, computer science, and information technology. In addition to publishing journals, magazines, and conference proceedings, IEEE also makes standards for a wide variety of industries.
IEEE citation style includes in-text citations, numbered in square brackets, which refer to the full citation listed in the reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list is organized numerically, not alphabetically.
Here are some style guides that will help you format your citations:
Style and Ethics of Communication in Science and Engineering by Jay D. Humphrey; Jeffrey W. HolmesScientists and engineers seek to discover and disseminate knowledge so that it can be used to improve the human condition. Style and Ethics of Communication in Science and Engineering serves as a valuable aid in this pursuit--it can be used as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate courses on technical communication and ethics, a reference book for senior design courses, or a handbook for young investigators and beginning faculty members. In addition to presenting methods for writing clearly and concisely and improving oral presentations, this compact book provides practical guidelines for preparing theses, dissertations, journal papers for publication, and proposals for research funding. Issues of authorship, peer review, plagiarism, recordkeeping, and copyright are addressed in detail, and case studies of research misconduct are presented to highlight the need for proactive attention to scientific integrity. Ample exercises cause the reader to stop and think. Style and Ethics of Communication in Science and Engineering thus motivates the reader to develop an effective, individual style of communication and a personal commitment to integrity, each of which are essential to success in the workplace.Table of Contents: Motivation / Writing Well / Scientific Publications / Proposals and Grant Applications / Oral Communication / Authorship / Recordkeeping / Ownership of Ideas, Data, and Publications
Publication Date: 2008-09-08
Science Research Writing by Hilary Glasman-DealThis book is designed to enable non-native English speakers to write science research for publication in English. It can also be used by English speakers and is a practical, user-friendly book intended as a fast, do-it-yourself guide for those whose English language proficiency is above intermediate. The approach is based on material developed from teaching graduate students at Imperial College London and has been extensively piloted. The book guides the reader through the process of writing science research and will also help with writing a Master's or Doctoral thesis in English.Science writing is much easier than it looks because the structure and language are conventional. The aim of this book is to help the reader discover a template or model for science research writing and then to provide the grammar and vocabulary tools needed to operate that model. There are five units: Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion/Conclusion and Abstract. The reader develops a model for each section of the research article through sample texts and exercises; this is followed by a Grammar and Writing Skills section designed to respond to frequently-asked questions as well as a Vocabulary list including examples of how the words and phrases are to be used.
Publication Date: 2009-12-01
Engineers' Guide to Technical Writing by Kenneth G. BudinskiThe ability to write clearly is essential for career advancement in any technical field. This book provides easy-to-follow guidelines, methods and rules that will make you a more efficient technical writer. Whether you're an experienced writer or a reluctant one, you will benefit from the many insights and tips presented in this book. Describes how to write clearly and concisely by presenting the essential attributes, methods, and objectives of good technical writing. Provides an easy-to-follow writing strategy that will help you arrange and prioritize your thinking before you actually start to write. Includes techniques that make good writing less of a challenge. Features checklists and step-by-step procedures that will help even the most reluctant writer. The author is a practicing engineer who understands the need for writing in a practical, no-nonsense style. Through numerous examples, tips, and rules, you will learn how to write effective memos, documents, and technical reports that will get results and help you advance your career.