In the three stages of video production, production is the process which captures the video content (moving images / videography) and involves filming the subject(s) of the video. This is perhaps the most technical phase of video production and requires the use of video cameras, microphones, set design and lighting, etc. Production ends when all the content has been collected and editing can begin.
There is not a singular type of style that is used for every kind of video content captured. Instead, style changes depending on the type of video being created, and the desired tone and message of the video.
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Good videography relies heavily on lighting. Great lighting can make your video look professional and high definition, while poor lighting will very quickly ruin the feel of your video. This section will provide you with some lighting elements to consider when recording your video project. Keep in mind that some lighting elements (like color correction) can be adjusted in editing but that a good lighting foundation will make the process much easier.
Natural vs. Artificial Light
The quality of your lighting - whether natural or artificial - is often thought of as the shape of the light. This can either be direct or diffused.
A great compromise between direct and diffused light can be to use natural lighting while indoors by setting up your shot near a window. If you do choose to shoot indoors and there's no natural light available, try to find as flattering light as possible. Alternatively, if you do choose to shoot outside, make sure you're shooting somewhere with comfortable lighting for everyone.
In the same way there are pros and cons to indoor (artificial) vs. outdoor (natural) lighting, there are similar considerations for sound. Ultimately it all comes down to sound control - indoor sound is easier to control, but may appear less natural while outdoor sound takes a lot of additional precautions to manage properly. While no sound is perfect, below are some things to consider, as well as some suggestions, on how to get the best sound possible.
Things to Look For
When recording indoors:
When recording outdoors:
Things to Avoid
When recording indoors:
When recording outdoors:
Types of Camera Shots
There are a lot of different ways to set up your camera to frame your shot. Different methods can add different artistic elements to your video or even play with the emotions of your audience. Most videographers choose to stick to one or two methods throughout every shot in order to create consistency. Below are a few examples for common types of shots.
Types of Composition
Nothing makes a video look more amateurish than poor videography. Follow these tips to record the best video possible:
Many students think that the quickest way to create a media project is to pick up a camera and start shooting, but a lack of planning can leave your viewers underwhelmed and result in a poor grade. This is why it is extremely important to take the time to plan your video thoroughly before you start production. When making a video, you should always start by defining your project and thinking about what ideas you want to communicate and how. Be sure to brainstorm unique ways of presenting your topic; make sure to think outside the box. Once you’ve defined your project, write a brief script and perhaps create a simple storyboard.
Poorly lit videos strain the eyes of your viewers and reflect poorly on your project, so it is important to consider lighting when you are filming (whether that be indoors or outdoors). Before you set up your light sources, consider the effect you want to create in your finished video. Do you want your subject’s face entirely lit up (“soft” or “flat” light), or do you want some shadows (“hard” light)? Softer light is also more flattering. If you’re filming indoors, avoid overhead lighting where possible and instead look for natural light from windows. You can also use lamps to get the exact type of light you want.
When planning a shot for your video you want to make sure that the audience focuses on your subject and not the background behind them. There are many things to consider when choosing a background but the key is to minimize elements that will make the scene look cluttered and draw attention away from your subject. Make an effort to use simple backgrounds when possible (a wall, a solid color backdrop, etc.) or to carefully reduce the clutter behind your subject. It's also important to avoid too much action in the background that can become distracting (traffic, students walking by, interfering bystanders, etc.). Finally, make sure to place your subject a few feet away from whatever background you choose in order to add depth to the shot and avoid casting a harsh shadow.
Unless you are planning a moving shot, you'll almost always want your camera on a tripod. Shaky footage can disorient your viewers and make your videos look amateurish. Once your camera and tripod are set up, try not to move them. If you do need to pan, zoom, or tilt the camera, do so carefully and with smooth hand movements - like you're holding a full cup of hot coffee.
If your footage still turns out shaky despite your best efforts, video stabilization software can help to fix it in post-production (available in programs like Adobe Premiere Pro). Some cameras also have built-in stabilization that you can use while you’re filming. Slowing down the speed your footage in post-production can also help to make shakiness less obvious.
Most importantly of all, when recording a scene, be sure to always record more footage than you'll actually need. Shoot multiple takes to get different sound or lighting conditions and shoot the same take from a number of different angels. The idea here is to collect as much video as possible in order to give yourself plenty of options while editing. While this may seem like a waste of time, it will actually save you time in post-production, especially if you find a clip that has poor lighting or audio quality.