The National Science Foundation changed their reporting rules in 2013 -- your biographical sketch can now include products “...including but not limited to publications, data sets, software, patents, and copyrights.” (see NSF Grant proposal guidelines Chapter II.C.2.f(i)(c)).
As long your data set is in a publicly accessible repository, and it has a unique persistent identifier such as a DOI, you can get credit for your data in your NSF biosketch!
Consider formally publishing your data in a data journal. Data journals are usually peer-reviewed and are designed to provide researchers with traditional scholarly reward opportunities. For example, Nature Publications data journal "Scientific Data."
The Data Citation Index is a database for finding datasets, data repositories, and data studies. It tracks citations counts for datasets within indexed repositories -- search their Master Data Repository List to see if a particular repository is included.
What's a DOI?
DOI stands for "Digital Object Identifier" -- a DOI functions as a unique, persitent identifer.
A DOI name (for example: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00778.x) is a unique character string assigned to an item within the DOI system.
The DOI system stores the DOI name plus additional information such as the location of the object (for electronic documents, location is usually expressed as a URL).
DOIs can save users from the frustration of broken URLs.
Searching for a document based on its DOI means you can locate the document no matter how often the URL changes, because the DOI system will resolve to the most recent URL listed for that DOI.
To express a DOI name as a URL:
Add "http://dx.doi.org/" onto the front of the DOI name. For example: