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Northern Arizona University-Yuma Branch Campus

Thoughts to Consider When Evaluating Information:

  • How is information generated and who created it (information can be data, statistics, media, etc.)?
  • Who decides what gets published, posted, disseminated, and rewarded?  Who pays for it? Who owns it?
  • How do search engines, news organizations, social media, libraries, and publishers make information publicly accessible? And who has access to it? 

Confirming that a Journal is Peer-reviewed

Want to find out if a particular journal is peer reviewed? You can look up the journal title (not the article title) in UlrichsWeb Global Serials Directory.

Once you find an entry for the journal title in UlrichsWeb, look for the refereed symbol on the left to see whether or not the journal is peer-reviewed.

Common Elements of a Peer-Reviewed Research Article

A peer-reviewed research article generally includes the following sections:

Abstract - includes a brief summary of the research and is typically followed by author credentials.

Introduction - the introduction will contain information about the authors' intentions for the article, why they did the research, and it will include the hypothesis or research objectives. 

Methods - a description of the research methods used (survey, focus groups, statistical analysis, regression analysis, etc.); may also describe limitations with the selected method.

Results - scientific description of the findings.

Discussion - discusses the research in detail.

Conclusion - summarizes the findings and makes suggestions for future use of research. 

Appendix/Appendices - may or may not be part of the article

References and/or bibliography