Skip to main content

PBC Library

The NAU library website for the Phoenix Biomedical Campus Library

AT Resources

Levels of Evidence Pyramids

levels of evidence pyramid showing secondary and primary research

McMaster's 6S health resources pyramid

(Image: Clinical Information Access Portal)

Image result for levels of evidence pyramid

Alternative Levels of evidence pyramid.

(Image: Northcentral University)


Secondary Pre-appraised Research

Regularly updated guidelines that integrate evidence-based information about specific clinical problems.

Resource types: Practice guidelines, clinical reviews, and position statements


Secondary Pre-appraised Research

Summarized evidence from high-quality studies surrounding a specific research question.

Study types: Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and RCTs, some with quality ratings based on study methodology.


Primary Original Research

Original research conducted to answer specific questions.

Study types: Case series, case reports, case control, cohort, RCTs, qualitative studies, and more.

(Resources below also contain syntheses such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses.)

Best bets


Other NAU resources

Search for additional condition-specific information in the Books and eBooks tabs above. 

Other online resources



Physical books

  • Best used to cite background information on AT topics.  
  • Hover over a title to read its contents.
  • Check books out for 4 weeks with your PBC badge at the front desk.
  • Search for additional titles above.

Streaming video

Image collections

Tests, measures, and instruments

About the anatomical models


  • Available during staffed hours for in-library use only.

  • Some are stored on the shelf, while others are in a backroom; see library staff for assistance.
  • Check out models with library staff before and after use.  
  • Also view virtual models through Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy 

Available models:

Brain 4-part (4 copies)

Brain Ventricle (4 copies)

Ear Model (1 copy)

Ear, 3 times life-size, 6-part (4 copies)

Eye, 5 times full-size, 12-part (1 copy)

Eye, 5 times full-size, 6-part (3 copies)

Female Pelvis, 6-parts (1 copy)

Foot Skeleton (2 copies)

Foot Skeleton Model (2 copies)

Functional Larynx, 2.5 times full-size (2 copies)

Functional Shoulder Joint (4 copies)

Hand Skeleton Model (4 copies)

Heart model 5-part on base (3 copies)

Heart Model enlarged about 2 times (2 copies)

Knee Joint (1 copy)

Larynx, 2 times full-size (2 copies)

Life-size Auditory Ossicles (1 copy)

Liver with Gall Bladder (4 copies)

Median Section of the Head (4 copies)

Nose with Paranasal Sinuses (2 copies)

Rear Organs Upper Abdomen (4 copies)

Shoulder Joint (4 copies)

Sinus Model (1 copy)

Skull with Facial Muscles (4 copies)

Skull, 22 pieces with video (1 copy)

Spinal Cord with Nerve Endings (4 copies)

Spine with Femur Heads, Flexible (1 copy)

Torso-Dual Sex (1 copy)

Torso-Dual Sex, Female Sex Organs (1 copy)

Torso-Dual Sex, Male Sex Organs (1 copy)

Torso-Unisex, Open Neck and Back, 18-part (1 copy)

 Promoting health equity through physical activity 

In 2017, writers for ACSM reported that:

creating equitable opportunities for physical activity participation will aid in reducing inequities in health behaviors as well as promote equity in health outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes). Equity in health implies that 'ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain his or her full potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential, if it can be avoided'.

In the same report, it was noted that people are less likely (and often unable) to meet daily and weekly physical activity needs due to their belonging to an underserved social group. For instance:

  • only 31% of adults with a disability meet the guidelines for a physical activity, as opposed to 54% of those with no disability;
  • 27% of non-Hispanic black girls label themselves "inactive" in comparison to 14% of non-Hispanic white girls;
  • 18% of girls are inactive as adolescents, compared to 10% of boys;
  • LGBTQ+ identifying adolescents report 1.2  - 2.6 hours/week less activity than adolescents who do not identify as LGBTQ+

In order to help combat these disparities, athletic trainers can promote community engagement in underserved populations through four specific components: 1) creating public awareness 2) developing educational initiatives 3) building partnerships of practice, and 4) using evidence-based approaches to evaluate interventions.

The following websites are all vetted resources that work toward at least one of these components:

Loading ...