Skip to main content

Hopi History Curriculum: Home

Introduction

In 2004, the NAU Cline Library and the Hopi Cultural Preservation Office launched a project to develop a Hopi history curriculum to be Hopi History Curriculumused in K-12 schools on the Hopi Reservation and surrounding communities. The lesson plans presented as part of this site are drawn from information found in the archival collections and published sources held by Cline Library and the Hopi Tribe.

Much has been written about Hopi culture and religious practices; less attention has been paid to historical events, such as the formation of Hopi tribal government, the experiences of boarding school and day school students, the protection of sacred places, and the contemporary achievements of Hopi individuals and their villages. These lesson plans offer the Hopi perspective on tribal history. Students will benefit from first-hand knowledge of the people's past.

As part of this partnership project, Library staff digitized a large body of non-esoteric archival material in support of public 24/7 access on the World Wide Web. The materials can be explored through the Colorado Plateau Digital Archives.

The lessons plans were crafted by Ms. Chellammal Vaidyanathan and Ms. Sheila Lamb.

Hopi History CurriculumHopi Cultural Preservation Office

Topics

Boarding School vs. Day School Experiences

Overview

  • This lesson provides some brief background information about the implementation of day and boarding school systems for educating Indian children through western medium of instruction.

Objective

  • To understand the experiences of Hopi children in day and boarding schools.
  • To encourage students to compare and contrast day and boarding school experiences.
  • To introduce students to some of the games that Native-American children played in schools, and help them compare and contrast those with present day games. 
  • To teach students to sequence events chronologically.

Grade Level/ Subject Area

  • 5-6
  • Arizona/Hopi History
  • U.S. History

Materials

  • Student Activity Sheet, Readings, crayons, markers, paper, photographs

Time-Frame

  • 3-5 days

Theme

  • Then and Now: Students will be able to identify and understand changes over time.

Background

In the 1880s, with the intention of implementing assimilation policies, the government of the United States established numerous day as well as boarding schools.  The idea of receiving a western education did not appeal to all Hopis. Hence, Hopis were divided into two groups – one for western education and the other, against it. One of the important Hopi leaders, Chief Yukeoma believed that Hopi children should not be sent to schools. Government forces were sent to capture children and bring them to day and boarding schools. While those Hopis who shared Yukeoma’s beliefs and hid their children were called “hostiles,” those who willingly sent their children to schools were called “friendlies” by the government. Despite the fact that hostiles refused western education, many reluctant children were also taken away from their parents to be enrolled in day and boarding schools.

Both day and boarding schools aimed to teach English to Hopi children, and equip them with necessary vocational skills so that they would be completely assimilated into middle-class white American culture. In boarding as well as day schools, children were compelled to wear Anglo-American clothes, eat Anglo-American food, and speak in English. Those children who ran away from the boarding schools were captured, brought back and punished. There were also differences in students’ experiences. Some students had a positive experience, whereas others had a negative experience.

Pre-activity

  1. Students can talk to relatives/family members and ask them about their experiences in day as well as boarding schools.  Allow a few days for this “homework” to be completed so that students may talk to different family members or neighbors.
  2. Homework Assessment:  Make a list of how their school then was different from your school now.

Pre-Reading Opening

  1. What do you know about boarding and day schools?
  2. Share accounts of what they learned from family members. Write on the board “Then” and “Now” columns so students can see the comparison.
  3. Introduce the Vocabulary Chart.

Reading Activities

  1. Read the following boarding as well as day school autobiographical excerpts.  Reading can be done out loud by the students, taking turns.
  2. Use the Vocabulary Chart to keep track of words that may be unfamiliar. This chart may be kept as a running list, and students will write in their own unfamiliar words (students answers will not match).
  3. As they read, encourage students to imagine life as the person in the excerpt.
  4. Post reading discussion:  Ask students to describe how they would feel and react if they were the people in the excerpts. 
  5. Review Vocabulary Chart by discussing 5 – 8 (previously) unfamiliar words.  Allow the students to list/discuss their own definitions based on the context clues in the reading.  Write the correct definition next to the word on the board.
  6. Review the activity sheet questions. Have students answer them either orally or in writing.

Post Reading Art Activity

Students will illustrate one story of their choosing.

Incorporate Student Art and Archival Photographs      

Cooperative Learning Closing Activity:

  1. Divide the class into small groups.
  2. Hand out  2-3 Boarding School Photographs to each group.
  3. Review various photographs:  For example: “Main Entrance to Phoenix Indian School.” How is this school different from buildings at Hopi?  What might a new student arriving there think?
  4. Ask students to describe the activities of school children that they see in the photographs. For example: Keams Canyon Boarding School:  Fruit and Vegetables canned by students.” How similar and different are those students’ activities compared to present day school pastimes?
  5. Share their drawings and compare to the photographs given each group.
  6. Encourage students to discuss Hopi children’s experiences in boarding and day schools using specific excerpts given in the student activity sheet and by what is seen in the photographs.
  7. Additional Photographs and Questions for this activity are listed below:

For example:

Were the BIA boarding and day school programs valuable for Hopi children? What were the pros and cons of attending day and boarding schools?  Show a photograph that supports your answer?

What differences do you see between the Day schools and Boarding schools?

What classroom activities do boys do and girls do?

Closing Assessment:  Students will write a short report on whether they would like to attend boarding or day schools and the reasons for their preference.

 

Boarding and Day School Readings and Questions

Keams Canyon Boarding School

Helen Sekaquaptewa:

            It was dark when we reached the Keams Canyon boarding school and were unloaded and taken into the big dormitory, lighted with electricity. I had never seen so much light at night. I was all mixed up and thought it was daytime because it was so light. Pretty soon they gave us hardtack and syrup to eat. There were not enough beds, so they put mattresses on the floor and I saw where the light came from before the matron turned out the lights.

            For the next few days we were curious about our new surroundings. We thought it was wonderful and didn’t think much about home, but after a while, when we got used to the school, we got real homesick. Three little girls slept in a double bed. Evenings we would gather in a corner and cry softly so the matron would not hear and scold or spank us. I would try to be a comforter and, but in a little while I would be crying too. I can still hear then plaintive little voices saying, “I want to go home. I want my mother.” We didn’t understand a word of English and didn’t know what to say or do.

            Our native clothing was taken away from us and kept in boxes until our people came to take them. We were issued the regular school clothes. Each girl had two every-day dresses, three petticoats, two pairs of underwear, two pairs of stockings, one pair shoes, one Sunday dress, and two white muslin aprons to be worn over the dresses, except on Sunday. The dresses were of striped bed ticking, with gathered skirts and long sleeves. Some of the Friendly girls and those from other villages used to call us Hostiles and tease us until we would cry. At night when the doors were closed and locked little girls were supposed to be in bed for the night, our tormentors would take our native clothes from the boxes and put them on and dance around making fun of us.

Phoenix Indian School

Helen Sekaquaptewa:

            We went to school half a day and worked half a day. The home economics department had a big production room where all girls’ clothing and shirts for the boys were made, and we did a lot of sewing there. Besides this sewing the girls were assigned to laundry and home-cleaning details. The boys were put on janitor work, caring for the premises and learning shop skills. The school had a dairy . . . the boys took care of the cows and did the milking, and the girls learned to care for the milk.  

- from Me and Mine: the Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa as told to Louise Udall.  Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. 1969. pp.  92-92 & 135.

Polingaysi Qoyawayma:

            Arriving in Riverside in a stupor of weariness, the nervous and frightened strangers were taken to dormitories. Polingaysi, the youngest and smallest, was assigned to a place in one of the dormitories for girls and told to remove her clothing and take a shower . . . That night for the first time, Polingaysi slept in a real bed . . . Her bed was one of many, ranged the length of the room. In each bed there was a girl, a stranger, and one of them was a Hopi from Polingaysi’s homeland. Eyes watched her get into bed and lay her freshly washed head on the white pillow, but no one spoke a word of welcome and no one smiled . . . She had no sooner pulled up the covers than helpless tears began to flow. She tried to blink them back, but they kept coming, gushing like a spring from beneath her closed eyelids. Finally she dived under her pillow and wept, all but suffocating before her tears were spent.

             . . . [T] here were other experiences in store for her. She had to do her share of the work at the Institute, which included scrubbing floors, doing dishes, making beds, and helping in various other departments as she was needed . . . The first Fall in Riverside, Polingaysi was detailed to pick tomatoes at the Institute’s Arlington farm. The children went from Riverside in a big farm wagon, enjoying the trip immensely and making a picnic of it as they did their work . . . The Hopi children, including Polingaysi, seldom minded having to peel potatoes . . . [They] could eat as many sweet, raw potatoes as they could hold, while peeling the bucketfuls that went into the huge cauldrons to be cooked.

            There was a classroom at the farm where Polingaysi learned a great deal about vegetables and fruits, as well as routine subjects such as spelling and arithmetic. . . Her work in the school laundry brought her into the new adventure of sewing. She began by darning her socks . . . Once the art was mastered, she went on to patching and mending, and finally to sewing new materials on the sewing machine. . . Her teachers were pleased with her ability to make her own clothes and encouraged the other girls to trust her with their materials. Soon she was making more than the small wage of three dollars per week.

  • from No Turning Back by Polingaysi Qoyawayma  as told to Vada F. Carlson.

Albuquerque: the University of New Mexico Press. 1964. pp. 57-59 & 63-64.

Day School at New Oraibi

Don Talayesva:

             . . .[ A] day school was opened at the foot of the mesa in New Oraibi . . . [It] was decided that I should go to school. I was willing to try it . . . [One] morning in September I . . . wrapped myself in my Navaho blanket . . . and went down the mesa barefoot and bareheaded.

            I reached the school late and entered a room where boys had bathed in a tub of dirty water. Laying aside my blanket, I stepped into a tub and began scrubbing myself

 . . . [the teacher] scrubbed my back with soap and water, patted me on the shoulder, and said, “Bright boy.” She dried me and dressed me in a shirt, underwear, and very baggy overalls. Then she cut my hair, measured me for better-fitting suit, called me Max, and told me through an interpreter to leave my blanket and go out to play with other boys. The first thing I learned in school was “nail,” a hard word to remember. . . I learned little at school the first year, except “bright boy,” “smart boy,” “yes,” and “no,” “nail”, and “candy.”

Sherman School for Indians at Riverside, California

Don Talayesva:

I stayed in school until the spring of 1908. when a number of us boys were sent to Imperial Valley to help harvest cantaloupes. In June we came back to Sherman for the Commencement exercises, and then returned to work in the cantaloupes fields until July. Our skins turned brown . . . When we finished with the cantaloupes, our disciplinarian, Mr. Singleton, sent us to work on a dairy farm near San Bernardino. I did not like this place and stayed only two weeks. We had to get too early in the morning; I did not like to milk the cows; the boss was too strict and seemed to pick on me because I was the slowest milker.

In school, I was promoted to the sixth grade and took an active part in the debating society in our classroom. I found it hard work to stand on my feet and think, giving proof for everything I said. At first I got excited but later I liked it. . . I could talk like a gentleman, read, write, and cipher (basic arithmetic skills). I could name all the states in the Union with their capitals, repeat the names of all the books in the Bible, quote a hundred verses of Scripture, sing more then two dozen Christian hymns and patriotic songs, debate, shout football yells, swing my partners in square dances, bake bread, sew well enough to make a pair of trousers . . .

- from Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.1972. pp. 89-90, 129-130 & 134.

Edmund Nequatewa:

            Then it was near Christmas. This was my first Christmas, and I really did not know what was going to happen. All the rest of the children who had been there seemed happy because they were expecting presents, like what they were given the year before. . . On Christmas Eve all the kids were yelling and pointing up to the top of the mesa . . . and there was Santa Claus . . . Everybody was excited that evening. About eight o’clock they got all the children lined up, and we marched to the school house. When we got in, there was a big Christmas tree. Everybody was seated. We sang some songs. After the Hopi children got through, then Santa Claus came in. Every child was given everything alike so that no names were on the packages. The same way with the girls . . . Just as soon as we received our presents we would open them up to see what Santa Claus had given us. There was marbles and gloves and handkerchiefs and candy and scarfs and pocketknives and both kinds of Jew’s harps for the boys.

            The girls got dolls, aprons, capes, handkerchiefs, and I don’t know what else. After all the presents were given out, we went back to the dormitories, and everybody was afraid some body might steal their presents, so some of us took our presents to bed.

  • from Hopi Vol. 82, Born A Chief: the Nineteenth Century Hopi Boyhood of

Edmund Nequatewa As told to Alfred Whiting, Edited by P.David Seaman. Flagstaff, Arizona: Anthropology Dept., Northern Arizona University. 1992. pp. 97-99.

Hopi Day School

Harry Nutumya:

Back in those days, we didn’t have no choice of what school to attend, so it was like either you go to school there, or you didn’t go to school.  My experience there was kind of vivid.  You know, it was kind of a long time ago.  I think that the days at the Hopi Day School were times of fun and times of challenges, because from the very beginning, we were not accustomed to going to school.  And so from the beginning I know it was a little hard to go to school. But as far as coming from Oraibi to Kykotsmovi it’s about a good two-mile walk. Although there were buses that were coming to the village, it seemed like it was the pattern of walking to school and walking home, rather than riding the bus.  The boys, that was their choice.  The girls rode the buses, most of them, but most of us walked to school and walked home after school.

- from Oral History Interview conducted by Hopi Tribal Archivist Stewart Koyiyumptewa. Summer 2004.

Sherman School for Indians at Riverside, California

Harry Nutumya:

            During the time the school was being—a lot of the classes were taught in dormitories in the basements, and then in other parts of the old dormitories that weren’t in use.  They used them as classrooms, because there was a whole new school that was being built at that time.  And so there was construction going on.  Again, some of the things that I remember well, I enjoyed probably most was the vocational part of it, because we had hands-on.  We did classroom instruction, and then we were actually out there doing things with our projects.  So that was good.  A lot of things, like welding, auto mechanics—some of the basics—electrical and carpentry and drafting and things like that.  But I think that a lot of us also did a little bit more in terms of taking on a project, things like that. . .           

Questions

  1. Describe the boarding school experiences. Did Hopi children like their new boarding schools? Why or why not?
  2. What were the children asked to do after they reached their schools? Were the children allowed to speak in Hopi?
  3. What did boys and girls learn at the boarding schools? Did they learn the same or different things?
  4. How was Christmas celebrated at boarding schools? Did the boys and girls get the same presents? How are the Christmas celebrations similar and different in comparison to the present day?
  5. In what ways were day and boarding schools experiences similar and how were they different?
  6. Were the boarding and day school experiences good or bad?  How would you make them more enjoyable?        
  7. How are your boarding/ day school experiences similar and different from these children’s experiences?

Reinforcement Activity:  This activity reinforces the theme of change over time.  Just like games are different in the past, so are schools and children’s experiences of school.

      Have the students play some of the following games.

March with Rhythmic Steps: - I. March around the room once or twice. II. March with cross step. III. Cross hands with partners. Skating step to waltz time. Repeat. Cross hands with partners.  IV. Slide steps. Two hops, waltz time. Repeat.

Master of the Ring: -  A circle is drawn on the ground. The players stand shoulder to shoulder inside the circle, with arms folded either on chest or behind the back. The play starts on a signal, and consists in trying to push one’s neighbor with shoulders out of the circle. Any player who unfolds his arms or falls down is also out of the game. The master of the ring is he who in the end vanquishes all of the others.

Throwing the Handkerchief: - The company being seated around the room in a circle, someone stationed in the center throws an unfolded handkerchief to one of the seated players.

            Whoever receives it must instantly throw it to someone else, and so on, while the person in the center endeavors to catch the handkerchief in its passage from one player to another.

            If he catches it as it touches somebody, that person must take his place in the center. If it is caught in the air, the player whose hands it last left enters the circle.

            The handkerchief must not be knotted or twisted, but thrown loosely.

The Farmer is Coming: - One player, chosen to be farmer, is seated; the remaining players stand at distance in a circle. The leader taps some of them on the shoulder as an invitation to go to the farmer’s orchard for apples with him. They leave their home ground and approach as near the farmer as they dare. The game is more interesting if they can do this and practically surround him. Suddenly the farmer claps his hands and all players must stand still while the leader calls out “the farmer is coming,” the players trying to get back to their home grounds, the farmer chasing them. He may not start, however, until the leader has given his warning. Any player caught changes places with the farmer.

Exchange: - One player is blindfolded and stands in the center. The other players sit in chairs in a circle around him. It is advisable to have the circle rather large. The players are numbered consecutively from one to the highest number playing.

            The game may start with the players sitting in consecutive order, or they may change places at the outset to confuse the blinded player, although the changing of places takes place very rapidly in the course of the game. The blinded player calls out two numbers, whereupon the players bearing those numbers must exchange places, the blinded player trying meanwhile either to catch one of the players or to secure one of the chairs. Any player so caught must yield his chair to the catcher. No player may go outside of the circle of chairs, but any other tactics may be resorted to for evading capture, such as stooping, creeping, dashing suddenly, etc.

- games from Social Plays, Games, Marches, Old Folk Dances and Rhythmic Movements. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911, pp. 31, 37, 53, 54-55 & 63.

Questions  

  1. Ask children about the games they like to play and why do they like them.
  2. How similar are these games to the ones that children play at school now? Are there any differences? If so, what are they?

Evaluation/Assessment          

  • In response to Reading Activity  the class will be able to empathize with the characters in the excerpts. Students will be able to identify feelings related to loneliness, home-sickness, fear of new surroundings, the prospect of learning new lessons, vocational skills, the Christmas celebrations etc.   
  • In response to Reading Activity , Question 1, the class will be able to list at least two reasons to describe why Hopi children liked and disliked boarding schools, specifically
    • the prospect of earning their own money and the acquisition of new language, arithmetic, and debating skills (likes) &
    • the separation from home and loneliness (dislikes).
  • In response to Reading Activity , Question 2, students should be able to clearly pinpoint that Hopi children were asked to discard their traditional clothes, have a bath, wear western clothes, and were forbidden to speak in Hopi.
  • In response to Reading Activity, Question 3, the students will be able to identify the similarities (such as, acquiring spelling, reading, writing, language, and arithmetic skills) and differences (such as, girls were trained in home-cleaning, laundry, sewing, making beds, washing dishes, and gardening work, while boys were trained in janitor work, taking care of cows, milking, harvesting cantaloupes, welding, carpentry, and electrical work). Students will be able to list at least two to three similarities and differences between what boys and girls learned at boarding schools.         
  • In response to Cooperative Group Activity , the students will be able to debate and discuss Hopi children’s experiences in boarding and day schools using specific excerpts given in the student activity sheet and archival photographs.
  • In response to Cooperative Group Closing Activity, based on the information they gathered from the various activities in this lesson, the students will be able to write a short report on whether they would like to attend boarding or day schools and the reasons for their preference.

References

Books

Trennert Jr, Robert A. The Phoenix Indian School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman & London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Peshkin, Alan. Places of Memory: Whiteman’s Schools and Native American Communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1997.

Parker, Dorothy R. Phoenix Indian School: the Second Half-Century. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996.

History of The Phoenix Indian School, 1963.

Detailed Information

Teacher can refer to the following books/ websites for further information:

History Matters. “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man:” Capt. Richard C. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans: - http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4929/

Marr, Carolyn J. “Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest.” University of Washington Libraries, Digital Collections: -http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html.

Peshkin, Alan. Places of Memory: Whiteman’s Schools and Native American Communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1997.

Parker, Dorothy R. Phoenix Indian School: The Second Half-Century. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996.

Pierson, Katie. History of The Phoenix Indian School. Phoenix. 1963.

Qoyawayma,  Polingaysi. No Turning Back. Albuquerque: the University of New Mexico Press. 1964.

Sekaquaptewa, Helen. Me and Mine: the Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa as told to Louise Udall. . Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. 1969.

Ed. Simmons, Leo W. Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.1972.

Trennert Jr, Robert A. The Phoenix Indian School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman & London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988. (Also available online through Cline Library online catalog).

This lesson correlates to the following Arizona Social Studies Standards:

Arizona Social Studies Standards

1SS-E1. Understand and apply the basic tools of historical research, including chronology and how to collect, interpret, and employ information from historical materials.

PO 1. Place key events on a timeline and apply chronological terms correctly, including B.C.E. (B.C.), C.E. (A.D.), decade, century, and generation

PO 2. Identify primary and secondary sources historians use to construct an understanding of the past, using such sources as letters, diaries, newspaper articles, archaeological evidence, maps, and government records

1SS-E8. Demonstrate and apply the basic tools of historical research, including how to construct timelines, frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research, and analyze and evaluate historical materials offering varied perspectives, with emphasis on:

PO 1. constructing various timelines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era being studied

PO 2. framing questions that can be answered by historical study and research

PO 3. describing the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them

PO 4. assessing the credibility of primary and secondary sources and drawing sound conclusions from them

PO 5. analyzing a historical source and identifying the author’s main points, purpose, opinions versus facts, and what other authors say about the same topic

PO 6. examining different points of view on the same historical events and determining the context in which the statements were made, including the questions asked, the sources used, and the author’s perspectives

PO 7. recognizing the difference between cause and effect and a mere sequence of historical events

Hopi Agriculture

Overview

  • This lesson aims to familiarize Hopi students with Hopi agricultural practices.

Objective

  • To understand the importance of corn for Hopi people.
  • To identify the different kinds of food items.
  • To compare and contrast the farming practices of the past with the present.

Grade Level/Subject Area

  • K-2
  • Arizona/Hopi History
  • U.S. History
  • Social Studies

Materials

  • Student Activity Sheets – corn outline, identification activity
  • NAU Archival photographs of Hopi farming
  • Additional photos/websites of mechanized farming/cornfields
  • Planting materials, such as small pots, milk cartons, soil, and different types of seeds including corn and beans
  • (Optional) Ears of corn, corn chips, popcorn

Time-Frame

  • 4-5 days          

Background

            Agriculture and grazing are important activities for Hopis. They perceive agriculture, particularly corn, from a different perspective than academics. Hopis believe that when they advanced from the third to the fourth way of life, they received corn from Ma’saw. While the other people chose the largest ears of the corn, the Hopis selected the shortest blue ear one. From that time onwards, corn occupies a significant position in the Hopi society and culture. For Hopis, agriculture has been a way of life. Moreover, their ceremonies mark the different phases of Hopi agricultural cycle.   

            Besides corn, Hopis also cultivated squash, beans and sunflower. Squash was used in Hopi diet as well as to make different kinds of household utensils and musical instruments. Various types of beans were grown for food. Sunflower was grown to produce oil and to make purple dyes. In the early days, cactus fruits and dried squash were used for sweet seasoning. Hopis began to form numerous agricultural communities and started raising different types of beans, corn, sunflower, and cotton. However, in the year 1276, a twenty-three year drought occurred in the Southwestern region which affected agriculture greatly. Nevertheless, Hopi lands were not that badly affected as other regions. Around the sixteenth century, the Spaniards began their explorations to the Southwest. Along with them, they brought new fruits and vegetables that gradually became part of the Hopi diet. Hopis learned the cultivation of peach orchards, watermelons, chilies, and superior quality of onions.

          Today, Hopi farmers cultivate corn, melons, beans, squash, carrots, onions, and peas. Hopi farmers mostly follow dry farming practices. Generally, these crops are cultivated in small fields in various areas that are located near the mesas. In order to plant, harvest, and cultivate such crops, the Hopi used horse drawn plows and tractors. Horse drawn plows have been replaced with tractors. Hopis have been practicing five different agricultural methods – flood water farming, akchin farming, irrigated gardening, cultivating sand dune fields of beans, and growing fruit trees. Flood-water farming involves planting various crops, such as melons, squash, and corn in major washes and fields, and watering them using melted snow and summer rains. Akchin farming requires planting crops in narrow valley regions where flood water is accessible. Irrigated gardening entails growing crops in stepped terraces on the sides of mesas and watering them either using buckets or gravity fed conduits. Cultivating sand dune fields of beans and growing fruit trees in orchards are other means of agricultural production. The usual Hopi planting season begins in April and the harvest season starts in September. Hopi farmers use the hoes and digging sticks to clear the fields before planting crops. First, squash, melons, and beans are harvested and then, farmers bring husked corn to their villages. Moreover, wild plants such as, beeweed, wild potatoes, pinyon nuts, yucca fruits, pig weeds, saltbush, beebalm, tansy mustard, wormwood, and spiderwort are used as staple food or as seasoning with other vegetable and meat. The Hopis make lemonade from the Sumac berries and coffee from mistletoe berries. During times of famines, Hopis resort to eating dried greens, cactus fruits, juniper berries, wild currants, and wild roses. Further, agricultural labor is also divided between men and women. Men’s duties involve tidying the fields, growing, nurturing, and harvesting corn. Women’s work includes helping their men in the fields, raising as well as collecting vegetables and fruit from gardens, taking care of seeds, and handling the by-products of harvest season.

In addition, similar to various exhibitions and fairs held today, in the 1930s and 1940s, there were expositions for agricultural products. During those events, Hopi farmers exhibited their livestock and farm merchandise. One such Hopi fair was held in Oraibi High School at Oraibi. Farmers also owned orchards on Hopi lands that yielded different kinds of fruits, such as peaches, apricots, apples, pears, grapes, plums, etc. Moreover, Hopi students at the Keams Canyon Boarding School also cultivated various fruits in their orchards, such as peaches, apples, pears, grapes, plums, and cherries. Besides growing fruits, Hopi farmers also had livestock, such as, horses, mules, burros, sheep, cows and goats. Animals were useful to Hopi farmers for the products that they yielded. Even today, some families own cattle.  

Pre-ActivityFamily Food and Corn Stories

1. Students can talk to family members/relatives and ask them to narrate stories about the emergence of corn or what it represents. Then, they can share their accounts with other students in the class.

2. Ask students to learn from their mothers or female relatives how to prepare a Hopi corn dish  (as a closing activity, invite families to bring in their favorite corn dish.  Host a “corn gathering” in your classroom for families and students.)

Opening

1.      Ask students: What do you know about corn and why is it important?

Activities

Activity 1:   Labeling Corn

1.Provide students with printed outlines of the corn plant.

2.Ask them to identify and label the different parts of the plant.

3. Have students learn the names of the different parts of the corn plant in Hopi and English.  

Courtesy of New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University.

Activity 2:   Identify Foods

Apple                                       Grapes

Watermelon                             Potato

Carrot                                      Banana

Tomato                                    Corn

Apricot                                     Eggs

Cow                                         Strawberry     

 

                       

 

         

                                               

 

             

 

           

Activity 3Farming Photographs

1. Show the Hopi way of planting with the following photographs:

2.  Pass the photographs around, asking students to identify objects in the pictures (bean plant, corn plant, digging stick, fence, terrace)

3.      Next show photographs or websites of mechanized agricultural farms, from the Midwest or either coast.  Allow students to see the differences between Arizona    dry farming and mechanized agriculture.

4.  Ask students what is different from mechanical farming and Hopi farming.  How much food can be grown?  Which food might taste better?

Activity 4:   Planting in the Classroom

1. Provide students with some seeds, soil and a small pot or small paper milk carton.

2. Show the Hopi Calendar, showing the planting cycles.

3. Which part of the cycle are they in today?  Are they planting at the right time?

4. Should they plant beans instead?  Have seeds prepared for the appropriate season that you present this lesson.

Have students sow their seeds in their cartons and place them around the classroom (preferably along window sills and sunny places).  Observe the various stages of plant growth.

Additional Activities:

1.      Have students draw a picture of their favorite animal and ask them to describe what the animal provides to them.

2.      Ask students to color the following pictures (pgs. 8, 9, 14, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 29 & 31), from the book, Ancient Harvest: A Selection of Favorite Plants used by Native Americans of the Southwest: Coloring/Learning Book (Written by Conrad J. Storad & Elaine Joyal; Illustrated by Donna S. Atwood). Phoenix, Arizona: Donna Atwood Design, 2000.

General Questions

1.      What is the first step in planting a corn?

2.      What does the corn plant need in order to grow in healthy manner?

3.      How would you take care of your corn plant daily?

4.      What kinds of animals do you have at home?

5.      How and why are these animals useful to your family? What do you get from these animals? How does your father/mother take care of them?

6.      How would you take care of them?

Closing

  • Have students ask their grandparents/parents/relatives about farming practices in the past. Ask them to draw the story and bring it to class. They will share it with other students in the class and then, the class will compare and contrast farming practices in the past and present using pictures.
  •  Host a "corn gathering" in your classroom.  Have students and their families bring in their favorite corn dish and celebrate.  Decorate the classroom with the children's coloring and drawings of corn.  Ask volunteers (students or adults) to tell their favorite planting or harvest story to the class.

Evaluation/Assessment

Ø      In response to Pre-Activity, the class will be able to share their accounts on the preparation of a Hopi dish that they learned from their mothers or other female relatives.

Ø      In response to Activities 1, the class will be able to draw a rough outline of a corn plant. They will also be able to identify as well as label the different parts of a corn plant.

Ø      In response to Activity 2, the students will able to identify the items and match them with the appropriate pictures.

Ø      In response to Activity 3 and the Closing,  the class will be able to draw the story that their grandparents/parents/relatives recounted about the farming practices of the past and bring it to class. They will also be able to compare and contrast farming practices in the past and present using pictures specifically, in terms of the kinds of crops grown and the agricultural tools and machinery used.

Ø      In response to Activities 4 and 5, the class will able to name and identify the different kinds of corn and beans.

References

Hopi Indian Agency. Department of Interior: Bureau of Indian Affairs. Keams Canyon, Agriculture. 1950.

Hopi Extension Work Reports Collection, Hopi Extension Work Annual Report, 1938. Folder No: 1.

Hopi Extension Work Reports Collection, Garden Production, Keams Canyon, Arizona (1941-1946). Folder No: 11.

Hopi Extension Work Reports Collection, Hopi Orchard Survey: 1939 Season. Folder No: 3

Hopi Indian Agriculture and Food. Museum of Northern Arizona: Reprint Series No.5, 1954.

The Hopi, Federal Writers’ Project, Flagstaff, AZ : Arizona state teachers college, 1937.

Whiting, Alfred F. Ethnobotany of the Hopi, Flagstaff : Museum of Northern Arizona, 1966.

Whiting, Alfred F. “Hopi Indian Agriculture.” Museum Notes, Museum of Northern Arizona. Vol. 8, No:10, April 1936, pp. 51-54.

 This lesson correlates with the following Arizona Social Studies Standards:

SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARDS

BY LEVEL: FOUNDATIONS (Grades 1-3)

STANDARD 1: HISTORY

1SS-F2. Describe everyday life in the past and recognize that some aspects change and others stay the same, with emphasis on:

Note: Historical research and analytical skills are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 1-3

PO 1. using primary source materials, including photographs, artifacts, interviews, and documents to trace the history of a family from long ago

PO 2. the economies, symbols, customs, and oral traditions of an Indian community of Arizona, including the significance of the Eagle Feather, trade networks, decorative arts, housing, songs, and dances

PO 3. how past cultural exchanges influence present-day life, including food, art, shelter, and language

1SS-F3. Use stories to describe past events, people, and places, with emphasis on:

PO 1. contributions from past events and cultures

PO 2. examples of individual action, character, and values

PO 3. descriptions of daily life in past time and different places, including the various roles of men, women, and children

STANDARD 3: GEOGRAPHY 1

Students analyze locations, regions, and spatial connections, recognizing the natural and cultural processes that impact the way in which people and societies live and interact with each other and their environment.

3SS-F2. Identify natural and human characteristics of places and how people interact with and modify their environment, with emphasis on:

PO 1. natural characteristics of places, including land forms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather

PO 2. human characteristics of places, including houses, schools, neighborhoods, and  communities

PO 3. the relationship between the physical features and the location of human activities

PO 4. how people depend on the physical environment and its natural resources to satisfy their basic needs

PO 5. how people can conserve and replenish certain resources

PO 6. the ways in which people have used and modified resources in the local region, including dam construction, building roads, building cities, and raising crops

 

Hopi Tribal Council and Local Government

Overview

This unit traces the history of the Hopi Tribal Council and examines the functions of the various branches of the organization. The teacher may also explain the significance of the contemporary Hopi Tribal Council to the students and compare with Navajo Nation government.  If Navajo students are in your class, these activities may be adapted so they research the Navajo Nation infrastructure.

Objective

  • To understand the evolution of the Hopi Tribal Council and its role in the
  • Hopi government.
  • To encourage students to compare and contrast the role of the Hopi Tribal Council with that of the village administration.
  • To comprehend the dissensions between the Hopi Tribal Council and the Traditionalists.

Grade Level/Subject Area

  • 9-12
  • Arizona/Hopi History
  • U.S. History, Government

Materials

  • Student Handouts for each activity.
  • Hopi Constitution and By-Laws1936 - NAU Special Collections and Archives.
  • Sample organizational charts (examples can be found on many different websites including the United States Senate, Department of Justice, and the United Nations).
  • Poster paper (can be butcher paper, poster board or construction paper – anything that works for illustrations).
  • Sample political cartoons.
  • Recent editions of the Hopi-Navajo Observer, Arizona Daily Sun or appropriate web page print outs dealing with local issues (ex: bio-diesel fuel project).
  • Information on the Navajo government, particularly if Navajo students are in your class:  http://www.navajo-nsn.gov/
  • Navajo Nation Treaty of 1868

Typescript copy.

Time-Frame

2-3 weeks

Background

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 endorsed the formation of a tribal form of government for the Hopis on June 18, 1934. This system of government has its foundation in the Hopi Tribal Council.

Meanwhile, Hopis have always had a traditional form of village administration, which includes a leader/ kikmongwi from a specific clan. Each village has had its own social, religious, and political organizations. Nevertheless, there have been significant structural similarities between many villages.  While some Hopi supported the creation of the new administrative system, there was also considerable opposition to its establishment. The resistance to the new tribal council and constitution can be traced to the Hopi refusal to adopt the white man’s political system, and the lack of formal governments in the Hopi culture. Yet, the Hopi Tribal Council was superimposed over the traditional village system of administration.

The Hopi Tribal Council adopted its constitution in 1936, and it has been recognized as the Constitution and By-laws of the Hopi Tribe. The Hopi and Tewa villages agreed the challenge of working together, protecting the good aspects of Hopi life, promoting peace, and finding methods of resolving problems with the United States government as well as with the outside world. The Hopi Tribal Council also delineated the conditions that govern membership in the Hopi tribe. The council officers in the Tribal Council represent their respective villages. Their duties include attending regular meetings, acting on legislative proposals, and making laws for the Hopi tribe.

At present, the Hopi tribal government constitutes three branches: the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary branches. The legislative branch makes tribal laws, decrees and policies and supervises the administration of tribal business. The executive branch enforces and executes the Hopi Tribal Council’s legislations and policies. The judicial branch elucidates and implements laws and regulations authorized by the Hopi Tribal Council.

It is important to remember that Navajo students may be part of the Hopi classroom.  Include discussion and comparisons to the Navajo forms of governing.

Pre-activities

  1. Have students talk to family members and relatives and gather information and stories about the establishment of the Hopi Tribal Council.
  2. Students can also talk to kikmongwis and elders to learn more about the village system of administration.

Activities

Activity 1: Hopi Tribal Council Illustration

  1. Discuss with students the Hopi Tribal Council.
  • What do you know about the Hopi Tribal Council? How and why is it significant for the Hopi people?  Do you know anyone who is a member of the Council?
  • What does traditional mean to you? What does progressive mean to you?
  • What role did village administration system play in the pre-Council era? What were its functions?
  • What were some of the important reasons why the traditionalists resisted the Hopi Tribal Council?
  1. Assign students in pairs so they may work together (optional).
  2. Give each team the following:

Student Handout

  • After reading the Hopi Constitution and By-Laws and Hopi websites, design an organizational chart to illustrate the Tribal Council.
  • An organization chart is usually made up of shapes - circles, squares, triangles - to show different departments – examples can be found on many different websites including the United States Senate, Department of Justice, and the United Nations.
  • Be sure to include the offices of Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Tribal Secretary and Tribal Treasurer.
  • Create your chart of the Hopi Tribal Council using whatever shapes and colors you wish.
  • Create a caption that BRIEFLY explains (one sentence) the job of each office.
  • Each group will present their poster to the class.
  1. Display the student posters around the classroom.

Activity 2: Satire and Cartoons

  1. Begin the class with current events discussion, using a current political cartoon found in most daily newspapers or the following websites:

The Arizona Republic

Washingtonpost.com

            NYtimes.com

Politicalcartoons.com

  1. Student HandoutPolitical Cartoon
  • Create political cartoons pertaining to the kikmongwi system or the Hopi Tribal Council. Read through local newspapers and web sites to get a good understanding of an issue.
  • Draw a political cartoon on the local issue, showing the roles or viewpoints of the tribal council or kikmongwi.  
  • Present your cartoon to the class

4.  Display the cartoons around the classroom.

Questions for oral or written discussion during any part of this unit:

  1. Based on your findings of the kikmongwi system and the Hopi Tribal Council, would you categorize all those who opposed the Hopi Tribal Council as traditionalists and those who supported it as progressives? Why or why not?
  2. Were there other groups of people who neither supported the village administration nor the Hopi Tribal Council? If yes, what were their reasons for non-involvement in both?
  3. What is your opinion of the establishment of the Hopi Tribal Council? How significant is it for the Hopis in the contemporary period?
  4. Do you believe that it was necessary to superimpose the Hopi Tribal Council over the village administration system? Why or why not?
  5. Has the establishment of the Hopi Tribal Council affected the Hopi way of life in significant ways? If yes, in what ways has it impacted the Hopis?
  6. Compare and contrast the decision-making methods of the village administration system with those of the Hopi Tribal Council.
  7. Compare and contrast the structure of the Hopi Tribal Council with that of the federal government.  
  8. How have more traditional ways been incorporated into the new Council?

Closing

  1. How similar and different were the functions of the Hopi Tribal council in the past compared to the present? Would you consider the present institution an improvement over the past organization? Why? 
  2. Write an essay describing the relationship between the village administration system and the Hopi Tribal Council using appropriate evidence to support your answer.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES:

  • Field Trip: Arrange for students to visit a Tribal Council meeting.
  • Student Interviews: One group will interview a few elders on the evolution of the village administration system, its advantages and significance. The other group will interview some tribal council members about the various branches, councils and offices of the Hopi Tribal Council and their functions. Ask students of the two groups to share and discuss the results of their projects in class.           
  • Class Speakers: Invite Elders and Tribal Council members to your class.   Ask them to give talks to students about the role of kikmongwis and the Hopi Tribal Council.
  • Mock Council: Have students set up a mock tribal council meeting. They could research, discuss    and “vote” on a contemporary controversial issue, such as gaming or the cell phone tower. 
  • Debate: Have the students form two groups and debate about the advantages of the village administration system over the Hopi Tribal Council, and vice-versa. This activity will help them to reinforce what they learned through interviews and other activities in class and to analyze issues from a critical perspective.

Evaluation/Assessment

  • In response to question three, the class will be able to list the two main reasons for resistance against the new tribal council and constitution, specifically, the Hopi refusal to adopt the white man’s political system and the lack of formal governments in the Hopi culture.
  • In response to question eight, the class will be able to describe at least two ways in which the establishment of the Hopi Tribal Council affected the Hopis, specifically the imposition of the western model of political system on the Hopi culture, and the complete subjugation of Hopis to the western rule.
  •  In response to activities one and two, the students will be in a position to advance clear and strong arguments in favor of the village administration system over the Hopi Tribal Council, and vice-versa. If the class is able to actively participate in this debate, then it can be inferred that students have understood the history of the Hopi Tribal Council, and they have gleaned the necessary information from the interview projects, and the talks of the Elders and Hopi Tribal Council members.
  • In response to activity three, students will be able to clearly identify contemporary controversial issues, analyze them critically, and imitate the functions of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Hopi Tribal Council.
  • In response to closing activity two, the students will be able to write an essay describing the relationship between the village administration system and the Hopi Tribal Council making use of relevant information gathered through in-class debates and discussions, guest talks, and interview and research projects.

References

Constitution and By-Laws of the Hopi Tribe: Arizona. Arizona: Department of the Interior, 1936.

Eds. Spicer, Edward H. & Thompson, Raymond H. Plural Society in the Southwest. New York: The Weatherhead Foundation, 1972.

Ed. Fay, George E. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part III: The Southwest (Apache-Mohave). Greeley, Colorado: Colorado State College, 1967.

            Hopi Tribe Collection, Hopi Tribal Constitution, Folder No: 25, Series: 4.

Louis A. Hieb Collection, Constitution and By-Laws of the Hopi Indians, Folder No: 22, Series: 1.

Kelly, William H. Indians of the Southwest: A Survey Indian Tribes and Indian Administration in Arizona. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1953.

Page, James K., Jr. A Rare Glimpse into the Evolving Way of the Hopi. Smithsonian, 6; 8; 90-101; Nov . 1975.

            Hopi Constitution and By-Laws

            Navajo Nation

            Navajo Treaty of 1868

This lesson correlates with the following Arizona Social Studies Standards

STANDARD 2: CIVICS/GOVERNMENT

PROFICIENCY (Grades 9-12)

2SS-P2. Analyze the historical sources and ideals of the structure of the United States government, with emphasis on:

PO 1. the principles of democracy and republican form of government developed by the Greeks and Romans, respectively

PO 2. separation of powers (Charles de Montesquieu)

2SS-P3. Analyze why and how the United States Constitution was created by the framers, with emphasis on:

PO 3. development of a federal system of government reserving powers to the states and the people

PO 4. the Federalist and anti-Federalist positions

2SS-P4. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the legislative branch of the United States government, with emphasis on:

PO 1. specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution, checks and balances such as veto override, impeachment, Senate confirmation of appointments, and treaties

PO 2. the role of competing factions (The Federalist Number 10)

PO 3. how the lawmaking process operates, including the role of leadership within Congress

PO 4. the influence of the unelected such as staff, lobbyists, and special interest groups

2SS-P5. Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government, with emphasis on:

PO 1. specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution, including checks and balances such as the veto and judicial appointment power

PO 2. the roles and duties of the presidency and the development and function of the executive branch, including the cabinet and federal bureaucracy

PO 3. election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions, and electoral college

2SS-P9. Analyze the structure, power, and organization of Arizona’s government as expressed in the Arizona Constitution, with emphasis on:

PO 1. direct democracy by initiative, referendum, and recall processes

PO 2. the election process including redistricting, voter registration, and primaries

PO 3. Arizona’s legislature, its structure, how a bill becomes law, and the impeachment process

PO 4. the five major executive officers and their specific powers

2SS-P11. Compare the United States system of politics and government to other systems of the world, with emphasis on:

PO 1. advantages and disadvantages of unitary, confederate, and federal systems

PO 2. the ways powers are distributed and shared in a parliamentary system

PO 3. free versus totalitarian systems of government

Hopi Running

Overview

            This lesson provides an introduction to the role of running in Hopi history and culture. It also includes a running activity that can be team-taught with a physical education teacher.

Objectives

Ø      To understand the importance of running in Hopi culture.

Ø      To emphasize the significance of running for the sake of health.

Ø      To compare and contrast the historical and current traditions/ goals of running.

Ø      To utilize map skills, recognizing locations and latitude and longitude coordinates.

Grade Level/Subject Area

Ø      4-8

Ø      Arizona/Hopi History

Ø      U.S. History

Ø      Social Studies

Ø      Physical Education

Materials

Ø      Student Activity Sheets

Ø      Readings

Ø      Maps of Arizona and New Mexico

Ø      Paper for messengers

Time-Frame

Ø      2-3 days

Background

            Hopis are well-known for running great distances at record speed. In Native- American history and culture, the tradition of running can be traced to mythic folklores. It was believed that ancestors and animals showed Indian men and women how to run, and that mythic races helped to organize the world. In Hopi culture, running has practical as well as ceremonial reasons. Several centuries ago, Hopis did not own cattle, sheep or burros, and they had to rely upon game-capturing, which required them to cultivate the practice of running. Besides running for gaming purposes, Hopis also ran in search of food. When there were no horses for transportation, running helped to cover great distances.

            Moreover, running races were organized between neighboring villages. There were occasions when runners from villages such as, Oraibi and Walpi would challenge one another to run races. In such cases, runners participated in the races to prove their fortitude and fleetness of feet. As far as the health aspect of running is concerned, Hopis believe that running banishes unhappiness, strengthens the body, and rejuvenates a person’s energy. Further, according to oral traditions, young boys as well as men from Oraibi would assemble at a common place in the morning and run to Moenkopi in order to work in their gardens. In addition, Hopi runners also played an important part in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.  

            During the time of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, Pueblo messengers ran to the nearby pueblos to prepare the people for the attack against the Spaniards. Hopi messengers were celebrated for their promptness in delivering messages. In 1903, George Wharton James gave a dollar to Charlie Talawepi of Oraibi to take a message to Keams Canyon. Talawepi ran the distance of seventy-two miles and brought back a reply in thirty-six hours.

In times of warfare against the Navajos, Hopis runners used to run to Navajo country in order to look for salvia, hair combings, and food in the enemy’s hogans. The runners brought back those elements, buried them as bait and ignited a fire above the buried elements so that the Navajo would be weakened before the approaching battle. In such instances, running had a supernatural purpose to it.

Hopi running also occurred in conjunction with several ceremonial events. While praying as a group for rain and prosperity during ceremonies like the Snake and Basket dances, running races served as significant ceremonial events. Even today, Hopis still practice ceremonial running. Hence, Hopi running games are religious as well as secular in nature. Such games were played to bring rains and cultivate crops.

            Thus, in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, Hopi running focused more on spiritual and practical purposes. From the beginning of the twentieth century, Hopi running became linked more with physical fitness and sports. One of the most famous Hopi runners was Louis Tewanima who won the silver medal in the 1912 Olympics held in Sweden. Another Hopi runner, Nicholas Quamawahu, won the Long Beach – New York Marathon in 1927.

Pre-activity:

Have students talk to family members/relatives and gather information or listen to stories on the history of Hopi running.

Opening Discussion 

  1. Do you like running? For what reasons do you like running?
  2. Have you participated in running races?
  3. Were these races conducted in your school in conjunction with village dances or celebrations?
  4. What kinds of activities are associated with running?
  5. Why is running important in Hopi culture?
  6. Have students share the folklores/stories they heard from their family/parents about Hopi running. 

Introduction:

Hopi Running History:

  1. Instruct the students about the Hopi history of running, using information from above.
  2. Answer the following questions, either orally or on paper, after learning about the messenger system.

a.       Why did Hopis cultivate the practice of running? What were the various reasons for running?

b.      What are the reasons behind contemporary running?

c.       What do you know about Hopi runners during the time of the Pueblo Revolt?

d.      Are there any fast runners in your family? Who are they and what kind of running races do they participate in?

e.       What were the differences between the traditions of running in the past when compared with the present time? Has the significance of running changed now? If yes, explain your answer.

f.        Why do people run in contemporary times? What kinds of activities are associated with contemporary running races?

Activity 3: (this lesson may be team taught with a physical education teacher)

Hopi Messengers: Running during the Pueblo Revolt

Students will role play messengers during the revolt, acting as both message writers and runners.

  1. Review the history of Hopi messengers during the Pueblo Revolt of  1680.
  2. Divide the class into groups:  message writers and runners. Depending on the number of students in your class, you can divide them further into separate competitive teams.
  3. The groups can switch for the second part of the activity, so that all students have a chance to write and run.

*Accommodations* These groups depend on the variability of your class.  For students who are not able (or prefer not to) run, they can be the writers.

  1. Student Handout:

Message Writers:

  • Your job is to warn your neighbors about the Spanish advances into your land.
  • Use a map of northern Arizona and New Mexico to see where the Spaniards might be hiding.
  • Write a 2 -3 sentence message to give to your runner.
  • Your message should include: number of Spanish soldiers, their location (using place names and latitude and longitude from your map)
  • Be creative!  You may include a secret code (provide the key to your code when you turn in your assignment) or illustrate your warning message.

Runners:

  • Read the message from the writer.  Make sure you understand where the Spanish are hiding.
  • You will be organized in a relay team. 
  • Hand off the message to the next runner, until it reaches the finish.
  • Your job is to get the messages to your teacher at the finish line as quickly as possible.
  • After you hand the message to your teacher, tell him/her what the message says.

Assessment:  You will be graded on the accuracy of your message:  Are your locations correct?  Latitude and longitude correct? Creativity of message and/or secret code (remember, a secret code must have the key so it can be graded).

5.  Alternative Assessment:  A physical education teacher may grade according to running speed and team sportsmanship.

Extensions:   

Ø      Students can form a running club and organize traditional Hopi running games. 

Ø      Have students read  Charlie Talawepi’s stories, such as The Coyote and the Little Antelope, and The Coyote and the Butterfly. Ask students to discuss issues relevant to running in the context of Hopi history and culture.

Ø      Read the following story about Louis Tewanima.

Have students read the following biographical sketch and answer the questions that follow.

Tewanima-Hopi Runner:

             . . . [A] young Hopi Indian from northern Arizona enrolled in the Carlisle Indian School. His name was Louis Tewanima, and he was destined to become one of the greatest long distance runners of all time. But when young Tewanima asked to be placed on the track team he weighed only one hundred and ten pounds. Glenn “Pop” Warner, the famous coach, shook his head. “I’m sorry, Louis. You’re just not big enough for an athlete.” “Me run fast good!” the Hopi Indian insisted. “All my people run fast good.”

            Pop Warner was impressed. He let Tewanima join the track team, and the wiry Indian soon proved he could indeed “run fast good.” Two other Indians gave Tewanima a helping hand. They were Frank Mount Pleasant and Jim Thorpe. Jim, as most sport fans know, became one of America’s greatest football players.

             . . . Jim Thorpe and Louis Tewanima became such excellent athletes that they were selected for the United States Olympic Team without having to take the usual qualifying tests.

In 1908, Tewanima finished ninth in the twenty-six mile run at London. This was only the start for the fleet Hopi. Four years later, in the 10,000 mater race at Stockholm, Sweden, Tewanima came in second to the famous Flying Finn, Kannes Kolehmainen.     

            - from Me Run Fast Good: American Indian Biographies. Billings, MT: Council for Indian Education, 1983. pp. 3-5.

Questions    

  1. Who was Louis Tewanima?
  2. Why is he well-known?
  3. What did Glenn Pop Warner say when Tewanima wanted to join the track team?
  4. How did Louis Tewanima prove his running skill?
  5. What races did he participate in and what awards did he win?

Evaluation/Assessment

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

Ø      Identify the reasons why Hopis cultivated the practice of running such as, health, delivering messages, defeating Navajos in battles, and for ceremonial events.

Ø      Share the folklores/stories they heard from their family/parents about Hopi running.

Ø      Use maps for identifying latitude and longitude; recognize regional place names and locations.

Ø      Explain the events of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and identify the importance of Hopi messengers.

Further Information for Teachers

Teacher can refer to the following books/ websites for further information:

            Bloom, John. To Show What an Indian Can Do: Sports at Native American Boarding Schools. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Coolidge, Mary Roberts. The Rain-Makers: Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press, 1929.

Courlander, Harold. Hopi Voices : Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.

Hough, Walter. The Hopi Indians. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1915.

Nabokov, Peter. Indian Running: Native American History and Tradition. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Ancient City Press, 1981.

Stephen, Alexander M. Ed. Parsons, Elsie Clews. Hopi Journal of Alexander M. Stephen: Part I. New York: Columbia University Press, 1930.

Stephen, Alexander M. Ed. Parsons, Elsie Clews. Hopi Journal of Alexander M. Stephen: Part II. New York: Columbia University Press, 1930.

The Great American Foot Race

Titiev, Mischa. The Hopi Indians of Old Oraibi: Change and Continuity. Ann Arbor: the University of Michigan Press, 1972.

References

Bloom, John. To Show What an Indian Can Do: Sports at Native American Boarding Schools. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Courlander, Harold. Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.

Hough, Walter. The Hopi Indians. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1915.

Nabokov, Peter. Indian Running: Native American History and Tradition. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Ancient City Press, 1981.

The Great American Foot Race                        

This lesson correlates with the following Arizona Social Studies Standards:

  • 1SS-F1. Demonstrate the ability to place events in chronological sequence, with emphasis on:

PO 1. recognizing a sequence of events

  • 1SS-F2. Describe everyday life in the past and recognize that some aspects change and others stay the same, with emphasis on:

PO 1. using primary source materials, including photographs, artifacts, interviews, and documents to trace the history of a family from long ago

  • 1SS-F3. Use stories to describe past events, people, and places, with emphasis on:

PO 1. contributions from past events and cultures

PO 2. examples of individual action, character, and values

PO 3. descriptions of daily life in past time and different places, including the various roles of men, women, and children

  • 1SS-E2. Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric American Indians in Arizona, including the impact of, and adaptations to geography, with emphasis on:

PO 1. characteristics of hunter-gatherer and agriculturally-based societies, including their development of tools and adaptation to environment.

 

Breaking News! Hopi-Spanish Relations

Overview

This lesson plan discusses the nature of early contacts between Hopis and Spaniards, the establishment of Spanish missions in Hopi lands, the evolution of the Spanish-Hopi relations, and Hopi resistance to Spanish authority. The students will be writing and acting their own five minute news show, either video or audio.

Objective

  • To understand the motives of the early Spanish expeditions in the American Southwest, and the evolution of Hopi-Spanish relations.
  • To identify the influence of the Spanish on Hopi society and culture.
  • To recognize the various ways by which Hopis resisted the imposition of the Spanish rule.
  • To create a TV/Radio News Show of Hopi-Spanish interactions.

Grade Level/Subject Area

  • 6-8
  • Arizona/Hopi History
  • U.S. History
  • Social Studies

Materials

  • Student handout and questions
  • Video camera or tape recorder

Time-Frame

  • 1-2 weeks

Background

            The earliest Spanish expeditions to the American Southwest were chiefly motivated by economic and religious reasons. There were rumors about the existence of the “Seven Cities of Cibola” in the middle of the huge deserts and that they possessed enormous wealth in the form of gold and precious stones. Hence, the Spanish set forth to the New World in search of these rich cities. They were accompanied by Spanish missionaries who were intent on spreading Christianity in the new lands.  

            Initial contacts between Hopis and the Spanish were established in 1540, when Spaniards visited seven Hopi villages: Mishongnovi, Shungopovi, Awatotovi, Walpi, Sikyatki, Oraibi, and Kawaiokuh. Hopis were also known as Moquis. In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explored Arizona and New Mexico. When Coronado’s soldiers, under the direction of Pedro de Tovar and Fray Juan Padilla, arrived at Kawaiokuh, the Moquis in the village did not let them enter their village. This rejection resulted in a Spanish attack on the Hopis and the demolition of their village. After witnessing this incident, the Moquis of the neighboring villages sought peace and gave gifts such as, clothing and food to the Spaniards. Similarly, in the same year, Captain Cardenas led another expedition that passed through the Hopi villages. Moquis received him in a friendly manner and provided guides for him. From 1581 to 1593, there were about five explorations in search of the rich cities of Cibola. By then, the Spanish realized that these seven cities did not exist and began searching for rich mines. However, the credit for obtaining the submission of Moqui chieftains to the King of Spain goes to Juan de Onate, who visited their province in 1598.

Between the years 1628-1680, Spanish priests set up missions in Awatovi (San Bernardino), Shungopovi (San Bartolome), and Oraibi (San Francisco). The Spanish seized pueblo lands and resources. According to oral traditions, Hopis were forced to help in the building of houses and churches for the Spaniards. The Spanish priests also sent Moquis to bring fetch drinking water from Moenkopi because the water in the springs of Oraibi was not good. Moreover, Hopis were also forced to practice Christianity and abandon their own religious practices. Those who refused to follow the Spanish rules were severely punished by the priests. Yet this maltreatment did not prevent Moquis from practicing their religion and way of life. Sometimes Hopis duped the priests going away from their villages on the pretext of hunting and then, practiced their religious beliefs. Thus, Moquis resorted to passive resistance against the Spaniards.

Unable to bear the colonial oppression, all the Native-Americans of the pueblos decided to overthrow the Spanish.  This led to the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 in which the people of the pueblos defeated the Spaniards. The Hopis joined the other pueblos in this revolt and killed the Spanish padres living in Hopi villages. Although Moquis were free from the Spanish control for twelve years, Spaniards once again invaded the pueblo lands in 1692 under Don Diego de Vargas. Facing threat of destruction from de Vargas, the chief of Awatovi accepted Spanish rule. Despite the Spanish succession in the pueblos of New Mexico, they were not able to regain complete control over Hopis. In 1700, Awatovi was destroyed by other Moqui villagers because it was believed that the people of Awatovi violated Hopi traditions and principles.

While Moquis were subjugated by the Spanish, they benefited and also suffered due to European colonization. The Hopis acquired new wood working as well as stone tools, and animals such as, goats, horses, burros, sheep and cattle. They also learned to grow new vegetables and fruits. Cultivation of peach orchards gained importance among Hopis. The Spaniards also brought with them watermelons, chilies, and superior quality of onions which constitute part of the Hopi diet.

Besides the changes in the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals, Moqui population was also affected by the small pox epidemic that came into the country along with the Spanish. In 1851, the Hopi population was 6720. From 1851 to 1853, there was an outbreak of smallpox, which resulted in the deaths of a huge number of Hopis. Apart from being affected by smallpox, Hopis endured hardship under the Spanish rule due to forced labor, severe physical punishments, and imposition of western religion over Hopi traditional ceremonies and beliefs. Thus, Hopi-Spanish relations had both positive and negative effects.        

Opening

  1. What do you know about Hopi-Spanish relations? What was the impact of the Spanish contact on the Hopi culture?
  2. Provide students with a brief lesson of the early contacts between Hopis and the Spanish, and the evolutionary history of Hopi-Spanish relations.

General Lesson Questions

  • When was the first contact between Hopis and the Spanish established? What were the two main motivations for the early Spanish explorations?
  • In what ways did Moquis benefit from Spanish contact?
  • What were the negative results of the Spanish-Hopi relations?
  • When did the Pueblo Revolt break out? What were the main reasons for the rebellion? What role did Moquis play in this outbreak?
  • How did Hopis react to religious conversion by Spanish priests?
  • What were some of the ways by which Moquis resisted Spanish rule?

News Show Activity: 

  1. Divide the class into cooperative groups or partners (ideally groups of four).
  2. Review  the following student handout instructions

Student Handout

You are reporters covering the big story of Hopi-Spanish relations for your television or radio show.  Your job is to find out all you can about the history of this issue and report it live!  To do this, you must do your research first.

Then, you will write a script for your show.

You should have a News Anchor, and two Field Reporters, and interviewee.  The News Anchors will introduce and summarize the topics.  The Field Reporters will provide the details and interview.

  1. With your team, read the following online resources in order to get an idea of the history of early Spanish exploration of the American Southwest:  Remember, you are reporters – make sure you all take accurate notes.        
    1. Canyons, Cultures, and Environmental Change: An Introduction to the Land Use History of the Colorado Plateau
    2. Coronado Explores what will become the Southwestern United States, 1540-1542       
  2. Next, read the following excerpts below and review the questions on the student activity sheet, with your team members. We will discuss this aloud in class.

3.  Begin writing your script for your role.  When finished, give your script and notes to your teacher to be checked for accuracy.

  • News Anchor:  Summarize each event (Pueblo Revolt, Missions,  role of Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza ) into 1-2 paragraphs
  • Field Reporters: Consult with the interviewee to see which historical figure they are going to portray.  Make up a list of  5 questions to ask the character.
  • Interviewee: You will play the role of The Governor Don Juan Bauptade Anza, a Hopi at the early Spanish missions at Oraibi, Dominguez-Escalante, Don Diego de Vargas, Hopi during the Pueblo Revolt or any other role you choose from the readings below or class lecture.

4.  3-2-1 ACTION:  You will have 1 class period to rehearse your show, then we will record.  When each group has recorded their show, we will listen or watch them in class!

I. The Traditions of the Hopi by H.R. Voth

Before and during the Pueblo Rebellion of 1860

“The Early Spanish Missions at Oraibi:

            A long time ago the Oraibi were living in their village. The Spaniards often made inroads upon them and warned against them. Finally they made peace with each other and the Spaniards requested that they be permitted to live in Oraibi. The Hopi consented, so they hunted a place where Spaniards could build their house, and selected a place north of the village of Oraibi, where the ruins of the Spanish old buildings may still be seen.  Here the Hopi assisted them in building their house. . . The priests commenced to forbid the Hopi to have Katcina dances and make bahos. They demanded them to attend meetings in the assembly house,  . . . The Hopi began to be very tired and did not plant much that year, so the chiefs called over a council and they talked the matter over . . .  So they again began to have ceremonies, each fraternity with its own altar, and they made bahos, but did not tell the priests about it.”

            “ . . . The killing of the padre in Oraibi was the signal for the other villages to get rid of the padres that lived in those mesas also . . . They destroyed the houses of the Spaniards, divided their logs and timbers, and used them for their kivas. Some of the smaller bells are still owned by the Agave Fraternity . . . From that time, on the Hopi again had their dances and their sacred altar performances in their kivas.”         

            - from The Traditions of the Hopi by H.R. Voth, (Oral history account by Wikvaya of Oraibi), Chicago, 1905, pp. 268-271.         

II. The Dominguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776

November 16, 1776:

             . . . We arrived at the mesa of El Pueblo de Oraibi. We ordered companions to halt at the mesa’s foot, that none except those going up with us should approach the pueblo until we gave the word.

            We went up without incident. As we started to enter the pueblo a large number of Indians, big and small, surrounded us. We kept asking for the ritual headman and war captains in a language they did not know, and as we tried to go over to the ritual headman’s house they stopped us, and one of them told us . . . not to enter the pueblo. Don Juan Pedro Cisneros then asked him spiritedly . . .  whether or not they were friends of ours. This quieted them down, and a very old man led us to his home and lodged us in it, offering us a room in which to spend the night, and their customary victuals . . .

            Tonight the ritual headman with two very old men came to visit us, and after having let us know that they were our friends, offered to sell us the provisions we might need. We let them know that we much appreciated it.

November 17, 1776  

            On the 17th, quite early, they brought us at our lodging some baskets or trays of flour, beef mallow, maize paperbread, and other kinds of food supplies. We promptly purchased what we could, since of what we most needed they brought the least . . . We made them understand some things, especially the ritual headman and our host and benefactor; they listened attentively, but let us know little else than that they wished to preserve their friendship with the Spaniards . . . After midday we left Oraibi for El Pueblo de Shongopovi . . . 

November 18, 1776:

            On the 18th, when the Indian councilmen of this pueblo had assembled, along with those the adjacent ones, . . . after we had tendered them out thanks . . . for the courtesies and good reception they had given us, we preached to them; and they replied that they could not parley with us for their being unable to understand Castilian, or ourselves the Moqui language, that we should go over to Walpi, where they had some who knew the Castilian tongue, and that there, by talking all that we wanted with the ritual headman and war captains, we would learn about what they all desired . . . They further replied that . . . they wanted to be our friends but not Christians. In the afternoon we left for Walpi and, after going two leagues and more than a quarter, we arrived when it was already dark . . . After we had rested a short while, a backslider Indian named Pedro from El Pueblo de Galisteo in New Mexico, already very old and enjoying much authority in this one of the Tanos in Moqui, informed us that they were currently engaged in a cruel war with the Navajo Apaches, and that these had killed and captured many of their people. For this reason, he added, they were wishing for the arrival of some padres and Spaniards, through whom they might beg the lord governor for some aid or defense against these foes. And so they had been particularly delighted when they learned that we had come to visit them, because they hoped that we would bring them support and relief . . . This looked to us like one of the finest opportunities for inducing them to submit themselves to the faith and the realms of his majesty (whom God keep).        

- from The Dominguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776, translated by Fray Angelico Chavez and edited by Ted J. Warner, Utah: Brigham Young University Press,1976, pp. 108-112.

III. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, Governor of New Mexico: Diary of his Expedition to the Moquis in 1780

“To Senor Mariscal de Campo Teodoro de Croix.

“Arispe 22 July, 1780.

“To the Counsellor with the preceeding papers—Decroix—

“Senor Commandant-General:

The Lieutenant-Colonel and governor of New Mexico, Don Juan de Anza, after having given an account of the unhappy condition to which the lack of rains has reduced the Moquis; . . . he shows that in order to aid, satisfy and remove them, he has released some horses from among those he had in reserve at the Fort, and on account of the distance and the severity of the weather some losses resulted; and also that he has given provisions, tobacco and other small gifts, which he paid out of his own salary; and having  no orders or means with which to meet these expenses and those which in the future may arise in his efforts to attract this nation, as well as to the making of gifts to other pagans who give us some recognition and remain at peace, he asks his that Your Excellency be pleased to say in what manner he is to carry on this business in future.

Arispe July 29, 1780.—Galindo Navarro.”

Sunday 24th – I waited in order that the aforesaid people might come together and learned at the end of the afternoon that they were thirty in all, for whom I ordered horses, with orders that they join me tomorrow afternoon at the Gualpi Spring.

            This morning a considerable number of Moquis, the larger part from Oraibe, came to our camp, asking for the opening of trade, which I granted to them with advantages they have never before experienced; for which reason they consorted with us so much that even after they had finished, they remained throughout the day.

                                                                                                JUAN BAUPTADE ANZA”

“Senor Commandant General:

            The Governor Don Juan Bauptade Anza having stated . . . that the gentle methods adopted by Your Excellency for the reduction of the Moquis and leading them to take up their residence in our settlements in New Mexico and re-people that Province have produced the favorable effect of bringing into it voluntarily more than two hundred persons, who consider themselves happy on account of the reception and welcome which has been given to them, without caring to return to their old country . . . these will constitute the most vivid, attractive, and efficacious examples, so that the remainder of their Nation who remain obstinate in their own pueblos, may accept the proposals to leave and follow them voluntarily for the enjoyment of similar god fortune; that to this end, from among those converted and from among the other Indians he may consider the most adopted for the enterprise, he arranged that under the pretext of trade, some trusty emissaries, possessing his greatest confidence, go soon to the Moqui pueblos and subtly spreading among the Heathen the happiness they have enjoyed through having joined our pueblos, where they lack for nothing and are treated with greatest humanity, they may proceed insensibly stimulating a desire to follow them, and for that reason they may seek the same conversion and addition to our pueblos; . . .”

            - from Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, Governor of New Mexico: Diary of his Expedition to the Moquis in 1780, with an introduction and notes by Ralph Twithcell, Historical Society of New Mexico, No. 21, Santa Fe, 1918 (Paper read before the Historical Society at its Annual Meeting, 1918), pp. 17, 19, 36, 41 & 42.  

Questions for teams:

  1. How did the Hopis of Oraibi receive Spaniards before the outbreak of the Pueblo Revolt of 1860?
  2. How did the Hopis of Oraibi treat the Spanish during the Pueblo Revolt of 1860?  
  3. In 1776, how did the Moquis of Oraibi initially react to the arrival of the Spanish priests? How did they receive them later after Don Juan Pedro Cisneros talked to them?
  4. What did the Hopis of Oraibi bring for the Spanish missionaries? What did they desire from the Spanish padres?
  5. When the Spanish padres tried to preach Christianity to the Moquis of Shongopovi, how did the Moquis conduct themselves? What does their behavior indicate?
  6. What was the problem of the Hopis of Walpi? What did the Spanish padre demand in exchange for their help?
  7. What is your opinion of the exchange that took place between the Moquis of Oraibi, Walpi, as well as Shongopovi and the Spanish missionaries? From your perspective, do you think that the demands of the missionaries to preach Christianity to Moquis were justified? Explain your answer.
  8. How did Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza induce Hopis to convert to Christianity and to settle in New Mexico?
  9. How did Hopis react to the Colonel’s offer of help?
  10. In your opinion, what are the similarities and differences between the efforts of the Spanish missionaries who traveled to the Moqui provinces in 1776 and those of Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza?  
  11. From the above paragraphs, how would you describe the relations between Hopis and the Spanish? Was their relationship based on equality? Explain you answer.

Assessment: You will be graded on the following for an individual grade. 

Notetaking ___

Role playing ____

Accurate information in script ____

Worked well with team members ____

Finished product_____

Extensions:

  1. Have the students form two groups and debate about the advantages of Hopi-Spanish relations, and vice-versa. This activity will help them to reinforce what they learned through other activities in class and to analyze issues from a critical perspective.
  2. Have students enact a drama dealing with the subject of Hopi-Spanish relations (with appropriate costumes). This act could either focus on the meetings between the Spanish missionaries and Hopis, or the arrival of the Spanish explorers in the Hopi lands. Students will find this activity engaging and it will help them to gain a better understanding of the history of Hopi-Spanish contacts.
  3. Students will do a short group presentation in class based on the information acquired through other activities.
  4. Teacher may have students read Truth is a Bright Star: A Hopi Adventure by Joan Price. Students may have an in-class discussion about the story. This discussion will help students to gain am in-depth understanding of Hopi-Spanish relations.

Evaluation/Assessment 

At the end of this lesson,

  • The class will be able to point out that while the Spanish were treated with respect and fear by the Hopis of Oraibi before the outbreak of the Pueblo Revolt of 1860, after the beginning of the Rebellion, they physically assaulted the Spanish priests during the rebellion, and destroyed Spanish buildings and churches.
  • The class will be able to list that the Hopis of Oraibi brought food items such as, beef mallow, baskets of flour, maize paperbread, and other kinds of food for the padres. They will be able to explain that the Hopis of Oraibi desired the friendship of the Spanish.
  •  The students will able to explain that the Hopis of Walpi requested the Spanish help to fight against the attacks of Navajo Apaches and that in return for heir help, the Spanish priest demanded that they convert to Christianity.
  • The class will able to identify that the first contact between Hopis and the Spaniards was established in 1540. Moreover, they will be able to pinpoint the two main motivations behind the Spanish explorations, especially economic gains and religious conversion.
  • The students will able list at least two advantages and disadvantages of Hopi-Spanish contacts, specifically
    • introduction of new fruits, vegetables, and new animals (advantages) &
    • forced labor and religious conversion (disadvantages).
  • The class will be able to debate about the advantages of Hopi-Spanish relations, and vice-versa. This activity will help them to reinforce what they learned through other activities in class and to analyze issues from a critical perspective.
  • The students will be able to give a short group in-class presentations based on the information acquired through other activities.

References

            Bartlett, Katharine. “Spanish Contacts with the Hopi 1540-1823.” Museum Notes, Museum of Northern Arizona. Vol. 6, No:12, June 1934, pp. 55-60.

            Courlander, Harold. Hopi Voices: Recollections, Traditions, and Narratives of the Hopi Indians. Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1982.

Ed. Monaghan, Jay. The Book of the American West. New York: Julian Messner Inc., 1963.

Rushforth, Scott & Steadman, Upham. A Hopi Social History. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.  

Voth, H.R. The Traditions of the Hopi. Chicago, 1905.

Whiting, Alfred F. “Hopi Indian Agriculture.” Museum Notes, Museum of Northern Arizona. Vol. 8, No:10, April 1936, pp. 51-54.

Wiget, Andrew O. “Truth and the Hopi: An Historiographic Study of Documented Oral Tradition concerning the coming of the Spanish.” Ethnohistory, 29(3): pp. 181-199, 1982.

This lesson correlates to the following Arizona Social Studies Standards

  • 1SS-E8. Demonstrate and apply the basic tools of historical research, including how to construct timelines, frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research, and analyze and evaluate historical materials offering varied perspectives, with emphasis on:

(Note: Historical research skills and analytical skills. These are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 6-8)

PO 1. constructing and interpreting graphs and charts using historical data

PO 2. constructing various timelines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era being studied

PO 3. framing questions that can be answered by historical study and research

PO 4. describing the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them

PO 5. assessing the credibility of primary and secondary sources and drawing sound conclusions from them

PO 6. analyzing a historical source and identifying the author’s main points, purpose, opinions versus facts, and what other authors say about the same topic

PO 7. examining different points of view on the same historical events and determining the context in which the statements were made, including the questions asked, the sources used, and the author’s perspectives

PO 8. recognizing the difference between cause and effect and a mere sequence of historical events

San Francisco Peaks Controversy

Overview: 

The development of the Snow Bowl and the San Francisco Peaks was a contentious issue during the 1970’s in Flagstaff.  Students, by creating their own newspaper, will look at many different aspects of the issue, including environmental, religious, and economic concerns, by creating a newspaper. This may be done on the computer or on poster paper, depending on the resources available. Students will complete an article, including a journalistic “lead.”

Objectives: 

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • To understand the opposing sides of this controversy
  • To identify one key argument from each side
  • To compare points of view on development, environment and religious beliefs.
  • To write five to seven coherent paragraphs in newspaper column format.

Grade Level/Subject Area

  • 11-12
  • Arizona/Hopi History
  • U.S. History
  • Social Studies

Materials

Time-Frame:

  • 4-5 days

Background (from NAU Special Collections and Archives Biography)

The "Save the Peaks" fight was a decade-long struggle, originally pitting local citizens against Summit Properties and its parent corporation, the Post Company. The object of the controversy was a 350 acre parcel of land in the Hart Prairie area of the San Francisco Peaks.

In the early 1970s, local Flagstaff citizens united to prevent the company's proposed development of the Hart Prairie acreage. Arguments for development included economic growth and jobs for Flagstaff, while opponents argued environmental concerns and religious beliefs of native peoples.

During the course of the controversy, the citizens of Flagstaff and Summit Properties became allies against the United States Forest Service (USFS).

Both groups felt the USFS, guardians of American public forest lands, extended the "Save the Peaks" controversy for many years by neither cooperating nor negotiating in good faith with either the citizens of Flagstaff or Summit Properties.

Instructional Strategies

1. Opening: 

  • Ask students their thoughts on the San Francisco Peaks or Nuva’tukau’obi.
  • How do they feel about the current issues regarding the Snowbowl and reclaimed water?
  • Reinforce the idea that learning from the past can help us in the future

2. Pre-activities: 

  • Divide the class into cooperative groups
  • Instruct them to read the material, taking notes and highlighting pertinent information.
  • Create a chart:
    • For Peaks Development  vs. Against Peaks Development
  • Have student list main ideas for each side’s point of view on their chart
  1. Discussion:
  • Review the students charts, writing answers from different groups on the board
  • Ask students about each side:
  • What does Summit Properties believe about the development
  • What is the environmental stand?
  • What are the religious beliefs of the Navajo?
  • What are the religious beliefs of the Hopi?
  • Did Summit Properties/Bruce Leadbetter understand Hopi beliefs?
  • Did the Forest Service take religious beliefs into account? How?
  • What led to the eventual success of this “Save the Peaks” controversy?

4.   Student Instructions and Handout:

You are reporters and it is your job to report on the Save the Peaks controversy from the 1970’s .  Your editor has asked you to cover stories for the following headlines.  Divide the topics among your group members.  Use the information provided on the NAU Special Collections and Archives website and additional resources listed below:

  1. Developers:

Article by M.K. Leadbetter 11/5/1970

Arnal Corporation

                        Summit Properties Point of View

  1. “Save the Peaks” Organizations

Save the Peaks Position Statement

                        Jackson Browne to play in Flagstaff!

                        The Musical Message

                        University Students and their Response

  1. Native Beliefs

Religious Beliefs - Navajo (pp. 7 – 22)

                        Religious Beliefs – Hopi (pp. 23 – 35)

    (Document  pages 3-5/PDF pp. 11 – 12)

(Document Pages 10-18, PDF pp. 17 -25)

(Document pages 19-27, PDF pp. 26-34)

  1. Environmental Impact Statements

 'Save the Peaks' Environmental Impact

Forest Service Environmental Impact

  • Your article should be at least 5 paragraphs ( including Introduction, Body and Conclusion)
  • Journalists include Who,What, When, Where and Why in the first paragraph (also called the ‘lead’). 
  • Include a political cartoon about your article – an illustration with a caption
  • Your article will be proofread by a class member before a final copy is completed.
  • You may also include “interviews” ( Pretend or Real:  Extra credit for a real interview with someone who participated in this issue during the 1970’s – you must include a signature of your source)
  • Create your final newspaper either on your computer or on poster paper, combining all the work from your group. Your final project should be the size of a regular newspaper.
  • Everyone in your group is required to complete each of the following:

One summary article ______

One interview (either real or pretend) _____

Political cartoon _______

Proofreading one group member article, interview, and cartoon _______

Completed Newspaper ______

Closing:

  • Students will present their newspapers to the class.
  • Review the discussion questions from your opening lesson.
    • What does each group think about the developer’s point of view?
    • What could the Forest Service have done differently?
    • How did Hopi beliefs play into the debate?
    • What lessons can be learned from this controversy?
    • How can these lessons be applied to current issues surrounding the San Francisco Peaks today?

Assessment:

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Explain all sides of the “Save the Peaks” controversy during the 1970’s
  • Identify the points of view of the following: The Hopi, the Navajo, Summit Properties, environmentalists, National Forest Service.
  • Write 5 – 7 complete paragraphs, including an introduction, body and conclusion.
  • This checklist can also be used as an assessment tool, with assigned points.

One summary article ______

One interview (either real or pretend) _____

Political cartoon _______

Proofreading one group member article, interview, and cartoon _______

Completed Newspaper ______

Resources:

The Snowbowl Effect [videorecording] : When recreation and culture collide, who pays the price. Indigenous action media (2005) ; directed and edited by Klee Benally

Final environmental impact statement for Arizona Snowbowl facilities improvements proposal, Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona / lead agency, USDA Forest Service ; responsible official, Nora B. Rasure  Albuquerque, N.M. : United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region, 2005.

Respecting a mountain : proceedings of the Arizona Humanities Council, Northern Arizona University, Department of Geography, 1982 forum on the development of the Arizona Snowl Bowl on the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona / edited by George A. Van Otten.

Loftin, John. Religion and Hopi Life in the Twentieth Century. Bloomington : Indiana University Press. 1991.

Northern Arizona University Special Collections and Archives:

 

 

This lesson correlates with the following Arizona Social Studies Standards:

1SS-P1. Apply chronological and spatial thinking to understand the meaning, implications, and import of historical and current events.

(Note: Historical research skills and analytical skills. These skills are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 9-12.)

PO 1. Compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons learned and analyze how change occurs

PO 2. Analyze how change occurs

PO 3. Use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods

1SS-P2. Demonstrate knowledge of research sources and apply appropriate research methods, including framing open-ended questions, gathering pertinent information, and evaluating the evidence and point of view contained within primary and secondary sources.

(Note: Historical research skills and analytical skills. These skills are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 9-12)

PO 1. Identify community resources that preserve historical information--such as libraries, museums, historical societies, a courthouse, the world wide web, family records, elders--and explain how to access this knowledge

PO 2. Identify an author’s argument, viewpoint, or perspective in an historical account

PO 3. Distinguish "facts" from author’s opinions, and evaluate an author’s implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions, beliefs, or biases about a subject

PO 4. Compare and contrast different accounts of the same event, including hypothesizingreasons for differences and similarities, authors’ use of evidence, and distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications

1SS-P3. Develop historical interpretations in terms of the complexity of cause and effect and in the context in which ideas and past events unfolded.

(Note: Historical research skills and analytical skills. These skills are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 9-12.)

PO 1. Show connections between particular events and larger social, economic, and politicaltrends and developments

PO 2. Interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded ratherthan solely in terms of present day norms and values

PO 3. Hypothesize how events could have taken different directions

Loading ...